Parts of computer Motherboard and their Function Explained (Updated 2021)

A computer motherboard also knows that the circuit board is the backbone of the computer that distributes power and allows communication with the processor, RAM and all other hardware components. There are several types of motherboards designed to work with specific types of processors and memory. And almost all of the major components (such as the processor, memory, expansion slots, etc.) that are essential to the operation of the computer are located on the motherboard. In this article, you will learn about the different components of the computer’s motherboard and their functions will be explained one by one.

What is the most important element of a computer system?

Technically, every part is important, the processor plays an important role in a computer, but it can’t work without memory or power, so all parts of a computer are very important because they are there for a reason.

Parts of a computer motherboard (explained)

When you open your desktop computer and remove the motherboard, you will probably be quite confused about the different parts. Depending on the make and model of your computer, it may look like this.

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Socket for CPU motherboard

The CPU is the most important part of your computer. It is also called the brain of your computer, which is responsible for collecting, decoding and executing program instructions and performing mathematical and logical calculations. And the CPU socket is where your central processing unit (CPU) is installed.

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Memory slot on the motherboard

RAM (Random Access Memory), also known as computer memory, is another important part of the computer. It is unstable because it temporarily stores dynamic data to improve the performance of the computer during operation and loses its contents when the power is turned off. The memory slots contain the main memory. Most motherboards have two to four memory slots, which determine the type of RAM your computer uses. And the most common types of RAM are SDRAM and DDR for desktop computers and SODIMM for laptop computers, each with a different type and speed.

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Basis input/output systeem (BIOS)

BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System and is where all the motherboard information and settings are stored. It can be accessed, updated and changed through the BIOS. The BIOS is essentially the link between the hardware and the software of the system. The BIOS is stored on the ROM chip because the ROM stores information even when the computer is not turned on, and is used during the boot process to control the system and prepare the hardware for booting.

CMOS battery

Extra metal oxide semiconductors, also known as CMOS batteries, are responsible for keeping all information intact when the entire system is turned off. And all motherboards contain a small separate block for the CMOS, which is held by the battery (known as the CMOS battery) even when the PC is turned off. This prevents reconfiguration when the PC is turned on. Again, the CMOS battery is removable. It can be removed to reset the BIOS after an upgrade failure or in case of RAM overclocking beyond its capacity.

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Computer cache

Cache memory is a small block of fast memory (RAM) that acts as a buffer between main memory and the processor. It stores frequently requested data and instructions so that they are immediately available to the processor when needed.

Most processors have an internal cache built into the processor called Layer 1 cache or primary cache. And this can be supplemented by an external cache on the motherboard called Layer 2 or secondary cache.

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PCI slots – expansion bus

PCI refers to the Peripheral Component Bus for connectivity and expansion – it is the input/output path from the CPU to peripherals. These are slots into which expansion cards such as graphics cards, sound cards, LAN cards or other functional IT components can be inserted. PCI is the most widely used expansion bus in PCs and other hardware platforms. Buses transport signals such as data, memory addresses, power and control signals from one component to another. Other bus types include AIS and EISA.

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On older motherboards, you will find IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) connectors. This was the standard interface for connecting the motherboard to storage devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM/DVD drives. But today, the latest motherboards use SATA technology. Serial ATA (SATA or S-ATA) is a computer bus interface used to connect host bus adapters (disk controllers) to storage devices such as optical disks and hard drives.

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Computer chips

A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from the main components of a PC. These main components include the processor itself, main memory, secondary cache, and all devices located on the buses. The chip also manages the flow of data to hard drives and other devices connected to the IDE channels.

The computer has two main groups of chips:

  1. The NorthBridge (also called the memory controller) is responsible for controlling data transfer between the processor and RAM, and is therefore physically located next to the processor. It is sometimes called GMCH, for Graphics Controller and Memory Controller.
  2. The SouthBridge (also known as I/O controller or expansion controller) provides data exchange between slower devices such as USB, audio, serial, system BIOS, ISA bus, interrupt controller, and IDE channels. It is also called ICH (I/O controller hub). The term “bridge” is usually used for a component that connects two buses.

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Input/output ports on the motherboard

These ports are located on the back of the computer and are often color-coded.

  • Microphone – 3.5 mm pink plug
  • Speakers and headphones / Headphones / Earphones – 3.5 mm jack green
  • Monitor – Older motherboards have a solid blue VGA connector on the back, newer motherboards use standard HDMI and a black and white DVI connector.
  • Ethernet network cable – colorless connector
  • Keyboard and mouse – PS/2 connector (keyboard – purple; mouse – green)
  • USB devices – USB 2.0 port colorless; USB 3.0/3.1 port solid blue (yes, VGA ports have a similar color, but this shows how outdated VGA is)
  • Some modern motherboards are equipped with USB-C ports.

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CPU fan – A fan on the top of your computer’s CPU. It sucks hot air from the processor and blows it out to keep it cooler. Power supply fan – A fan located inside the power supply.

Professional Tips: When you start your computer, you may hear a beep code – these are beeps the computer gives to announce the result of a short diagnostic test the computer performs when it is first turned on (called Power-On-Self-Test or POST). When you turn on the computer, it should test the major peripherals, such as RAM, CPU, keyboard, and disks. If any of the devices fail, you will hear a beep to indicate which device has a problem.

Here is a video that explains the motherboard components and their functions.

Also read :

Frequently asked questions

What are the components of the motherboard and what are their functions?

The motherboard is sometimes abbreviated to MOBO. The motherboard contains many important components that are essential to the operation of the computer. These include the processor, memory, and expansion slots. The motherboard is directly or indirectly connected to every component of the PC.

What are the different parts of the motherboard that they explain?

Schematic representation (and explanation) of the motherboard components and their respective …

What is the function of a motherboard in a computer?

The motherboard is the backbone that connects the computer components and allows them to communicate with each other. Without it, no part of the computer, such as the processor, GPU or hard drive, can communicate. The full functionality of the motherboard is necessary for a computer to function properly.

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